Fresco Mural Painting Technique
Giotto di Bondone saw the need for the paintings to have a more figurative realism by introducing a three-dimensional effect, the use of shadows and creating a sense of depth and a wide effect. He, therefore, came up with Fresco Mural Painting technique which had linear perspective and the paintings posed a bold stillness which was an attribute that was highly recognized in the Christian art.
Fresco mural was the technique of the paintings which was done in the Italian churches. The first church was St. Francis of Assisi whose murals were painted by Cenni di Peppi. The second church was the Scrovegni Chapel which was painted by Giotto. He painted the biblical stories derived from the life of the Virgin Mary and her family, Jesus and his Holy family. These paintings were composed of a three-dimensional effect, the use of shadows and they created a sense of depth and a spacious effect. They also had linear perspective and they posed heroic stillness which was an attribute that was highly recognized in the Christian art.
Before Giotto used Fresco painting, it was used as a method of painting pigments which were water-based on fresh plaster, mainly on the surfaces of walls. The colors were made by grinding powder pigments in clean and pure water. The result was then dried and set with the readymade plaster to become a permanent and attractive part of the wall. Fresco painting was ideally used to make murals since it lends to a monumental style. It is also has a matte surface and is durable.
True or Buon fresco technique was the most durable and consisted of three successive durable coats of plaster, which were specially prepared, marble dust and sometimes sand was troweled onto the wall to be painted. Each of the initial two rough coats was then applied and allowed to dry and harden (cucci, Picollo, Chiarantini, & Sereni, 2015). The artist in the meantime transfers the design outlines onto the wall to be painted from a tracing which was made of a cartoon. The final part of the painting involved troweling of the smooth coat of plaster onto the wall. The boundaries of this region were then confined along the contour lines to enable the joints, or edges of the successful sections to be imperceptible.
The final step involved holding of the tracing fresh intonaco and lining it carefully with the adjacent parts of the painted wall. The interior lines and the pertinent contours are then traced onto the freshly made plaster. The faint but accurate drawing served as a guide to paint the image in the color. An intonaco which was correctly prepared would hold its moisture for several hours (Cosentino, Gil, Ribeiro, & Di Mauro, 2014). This gave the colors resistance to aging and permanence because they were an integral part of the surface of the wall.
Giotto focused mainly on naturalism-painting whereby he applied realness as a method of portraying his characters (Schwarz, 2017). He worked towards displaying the gestures of his art, and the movement and expressions which the people did. This is depicted in his work of the Florence cathedral. He relied on six primary factors which differentiated his artwork from any other artist. Under composition, he made sure that all the space was utilized wisely which made the viewers view that they were in the painting. He wanted the viewers to concentrate on one primary thing in the Fresco thereby including things such as mountains or heavenly beams.
Under the color palette, he avoided using colors which were excessively bright. He traded the blue skies for a heavenly gold color. The faces, hair, and clothing were given less emphasized and dull colors. For distinct emotions, he applied colors such as greens, reds, oranges, and yellows. He also used shade or light to show the several earth’ settings and to ensure giving life to the people in the paintings. He painted figures with form and weight due to the laws of gravity. He sued shade and light to depict the realness of persons with body illnesses, curves, muscles, and bulk.
He correctly applied emotion, tone, and mood. He studied people in several emotion states to show the three things. His paintings showed several gestures from shock to joy to fear. His paintings showed that the viewers were more than spectators but more like another subject in the drawing or painting. He applied thick brushstrokes since he didn’t admire light figures. Due to the above sentiment, he gave the subjects’ clothing and flesh.
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Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, fresco , 1508-1512 (Vatican City, Rome), photo: Scott Sherrill-Mix (CC BY-NC ) To any visitor of ...
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Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.  The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints ; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation . The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.  Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative . Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.